language

  •  ASSAMESE
  •  DOGRI
  •  HINDI
  •  KONKANI
  •  MANIPURI
  •  ORIYA
  •  SANTHALI
  •  TELUGU
  •  BENGALI
  •  ENGLISH
  •  KANNADA
  •  MAITHILI
  •  MARATHI
  •  PUNJABI
  •  SINDHI
  •  URDU
  •  BODO
  •  GUJARATI
  •  KASHMIRI
  •  MALAYALAM
  •  NEPALI
  •  SANSKRIT
  •  TAMIL

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. BENGALI

PAPER – I

History of Language and Literature.

Answers must be written in Bengali.

Section-A

Topics from the History of language

  1. The chronological track from Proto Indo-European to Bangla (Family tree with branches and approximate dates).
  2. Historical stages of Bangla (Old, Middle, New) and their linguistic features.
  3. Dialects of Bangla and their distinguishing characteristics.
  4. Elements of Bangla Vocabulary.
  5. Forms of Bangla Literary Prose-Sadhu and Chalit.
  6. Processes of language change relevant for Bangla : Apinihiti (Anaptyxis), Abhishruti (umlaut), Murdhanyibhavan (cerebralization), Nasikyibhavan (Nasalization), Samibhavan (Assimilation), Sadrishya (Analogy), Svaragama (Vowel insertion)-Adi Svaragama, Madhya Svaragama or Svarabhakti, Antya Svaragama, Svarasangati (Vowel hormony), y-shruti and w-shruti.
  7. Problems of standardization and reform of alphabet and spelling, and those of transliteration and Romanization.
  8. Phonology, Morphology and Syntax of Modern Bangla. (Sounds of Modern Bangla, Conjuncts; word formations, compounds; basic sentence patterns.)

Section-B

Topics from the History of Bangla Literature.

    1. Periodization of Bangla Literature : Old Bangla and Middle Bangla.
    2. Points of difference between modern and pre-modern Bangla Literature.
    3. Roots and reasons behind the emergence of modernity in Bangla Literature.
    4. Evolution of various Middle Bangla forms : Mangal kavyas, Vaishnava lyrics, Adapted narratives (Ramayana,  Mahabharata, Bhagavata) and religious biographies.
    5. Secular forms in middle Bangla literature.
    6. Narrative and lyric trends in the nineteenth century Bangla poetry.
    7. Development of prose.
    8. Bangla dramatic literature (nineteenth century, Tagore, Post-1944 Bangla drama).
    9. Tagore and post-Tagoreans.
    10. Fiction, major authors : (Bankimchandra, Tagore, Saratchandra, Bibhutibusan, Tarasankar, Manik).

11. Women and Bangla literature : creators and created.

PAPER – II

Prescribed texts for close study.

Answers must be written in Bengali.

Section-A

  1. Vaishnava Padavali (Calcutta University) Poems of Vidyapati, Chandidas, Jnanadas,    Govindadas and Balaramdas.
  2. Chandimangal Kalketu episode by Mukunda (Sahitya Akademi).
  3. Chaitanya Charitamrita Madya Lila, by Krishnadas Kaviraj (Sahitya Akademi).
  4. Meghnadbadh Kavya by Madhusudan Dutta.
  5. Kapalkundala by Bankimchandra Chattarjee.
  6. Samya and Bangadesher Krishak by Bankimchandra Chatterjee.
  7. Sonar Tari by Rabindranath Tagore.
  8. Chhinnapatravali by Rabindranath Tagore.

Section-B

9. Raktakarabi  by Rabindranath Tagore.

10. Nabajatak by Rabindranath Tagore.

11. Grihadaha by Saratchandra Chatterjee.

12. Prabandha Samgraha Vol. 1, by Pramatha Choudhuri.

13. Aranyak by Bibhutibhusan Banerjee

14. Short stories by Manik Bandyopadhyay : Atashi Mami, Pragaitihasik, Holud-Pora, Sarisrip, Haraner Natjamai, Chhoto-Bokulpurer Jatri, Kustharogir Bou, Jakey Ghush Ditey Hoy.

15. Shrestha Kavita by Jibanananda Das.

16. Jagori by Satinath Bhaduri.

17. Ebam Indrajit by Badal Sircar.

3. BODO

PAPER - I

History of Bodo Language and Literature

(Answers must be written in )

Section-A

History of Bodo Language

  1. Homeland, language family, its present status and its mutual contact with Assamese.
  2. (a) Phonemes : Vowel and Consonant Phonemes
  3. (b) Tones.
  4. Morphology : Gender, Case & Case endings, Plural suffix, Definitive, Verbal suffix.
  5. Vocabulary and its sources.
  6. Syntax : Types of sentences, Word Order.
  7. History of Scripts used in writing Bodo Language since inception.

Section-B

History of Bodo Literature

  1. General introduction of Bodo folk literature.
  2. Contribution of the Missionaries.
  3.  Periodization of Bodo Literature.
  4. Critical analysis of different genre (Poetry, Novel, Short Story and Drama)
  5. Translation Literature.

PAPER – II

The Paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates. (Answers must be written in Bodo)

Section-A

(a) Khonthai-Methai (Edited by Madaram Brahma & Rupnath Brahma).

(b) Hathorkhi-Hala (Edited by Pramod Chandra Brahma)

(c) Boroni Gudi Sibsa Arw Aroz : Madaram Brahma.

(d) Raja Nilambar : Dwarendra Nath Basumatary.

(e) Bibar (Prose section) (Edited by Satish Chandra Basumatary)

Section-B

  • (a) Gibi Bithai (Aida Nwi)
  • (b) Radab
  • (c) Okhrang Gongse Nangou
  • (d) Baisagu Arw Harimu
  • (e) Gwdan Boro
  • (f) Jujaini Or
  • (g) Mwihoor
  • (h) Hor Badi Khwmsi
  • (i) Jaolia Dewan
  • (j) Hagra Guduni Mwi
  • : Bihuram Boro
  • : Samar Brahma Chaudhury
  • : Brajendra Kumar Brahma
  • : Laksheswar Brahma
  • : Manoranjan Lahary
  • : Chittaranjan Muchahary
  • : Dharanidhar Wary
  • : Kamal Kumar Brahma
  • : Mangal Singh Hozowary
  • : Nilkamal Brahma.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. DOGRI

PAPER – I

History of Dogri Language and Literature

(Answers must be written in Dogri)

Section-A

History of Dogri Language

  1. Dogri language : Origin and development through different stages.
  2. Linguistic boundaries of Dogri and its dialects.
  3. Characteristic features of Dogri language.
  4. Structure of Dogri Language :

(a) Sound Structure :

Segmental : Vowels and Consonants Non-Segmental : Length, Stress, Nasalization, Tone and Juncture.

(b) Morphology of Dogri :

(i) Inflection Categories : Gender, Number, Case, Person, Tense and Voice.

(ii) Word Formation : use of prefixes, infixes and suffixes.

(iii) Vocabulary : Tatsam, tadbhav, foreign and regional.

(c) Sentence Structure: Major Sentence - types and their constituents, agreement and concord in Dogri syntax.

5. Dogri Language and Scripts : Dogre/Dogra Akkhar, Devanagari and Persian.

Section-B

History of Dogri Literature :

  1. A brief account of Pre-independence Dogri Literature : Poetry & Prose.
  2. Development of modern Dogri Poetry and main trends in Dogri Poetry.
  3. Development of Dogri short-story, main trends & prominent short-story writers.
  4. Development of Dogri Novel, main trends & contribution of Dogri Novelists.
  5. Development of Dogri Drama & contribution of prominent Playwrights.
  6. Development of Dogri Prose : Essays, Memoirs & Travelogues.
  7. An introduction to Dogri Folk literature - Folk songs, Folk tales & Ballads.

PAPER – II

Textual Cristisim of Dogri Literature

(Answers must be written in Dogri)

Section-A

Poetry

1. Azadi Paihle Di Dogri Kavita.

The following poets :

Devi Ditta, Lakkhu, Ganga Ram, Ramdhan, Hardutt, Pahari Gandhi Baba Kanshi Ram & Permanand Almast.

2. Modern Dogri Poetry Azadi Bad Di Dogri Kavita

The following poets :

Kishan Smailpuri, Tara Smailpuri, Mohan Lal Sapolia, Yash Sharma, K.S. Madhukar, Padma Sachdev, Jitendra Udhampuri, Charan Singh and Prakash Premi.

3. Sheeraza Dogri Number 102, Ghazal Ank.

The following poets :

Ram Lal Sharma, Ved Pal Deep, N.D. Jamwal, Shiv Ram Deep, Ashwini Magotra and Virendra Kesar.

4. Sheeraza Dogri Number 147, Ghazal Ank

The following poets :

R.N. Shastri, Jitendra Udhampuri, Champa Sharma and Darshan Darshi.

5. Ramayan (Epic) by Shambhu Nath Sharma (upto Ayodhya Kand)

6. Veer Gulab (Khand Kavya) by Dinoo Bhai Pant.

Section-B

Prose

1. Ajakani Dogri Kahani

The following short story writers :

Madan Mohan Sharma, Narendra Khajuria and B.P. Sathe.

2. Ajakani Dogri Kahani Part-II The following Short Story writters :

Ved Rahi, Narsingh Dev Jamwal, Om Goswami, Chhattrapal, Lalit Magotra, Chaman Arora and Ratan Kesar.

3. Khatha Kunj Bhag II

The following Story writters :

Om Vidyarthi, Champa Sharma and Krishan Sharma

4. Meel Patthar (collection of short stories) by Bandhu Sharma

5. Kaiddi (Novel) by Desh Bandhu Dogra Nutan

6. Nanga Rukkh (Novel) by O.P. Sharma Sarathi.

7. Nayaan (Drama) by Mohan Singh.

8. Satrang (A collection of one act plays)

The following pay wrights :

Vishwa Nath Khajuria, Ram Nath Shastri, Jitendra Sharma, Lalit Magotra and Madan Mohan Sharma.

9. Dogri Lalit Nibandh

The following authors : Vishwa Nath Khajuria, Narayan Mishra, Balkrishan Shastri, Shiv Nath, Shyam Lal Sharma, Lakshmi Narayan, D.C. Prashant, Ved Ghai, Kunwar Viyogi.

The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a first-hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Literature: Paper I: 1600-1900 and Paper II : 1900-1990. There will be two compulsory questions in each paper : a) A short-notes question related to the topics for general study, and b) A critical analysis of UNSEEN passages both in prose and verse.

PAPER - |

Answers must be written in English.
Texts for detailed study are listed below.
Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :
The Renaissance : Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic; Neoclassicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.

Section-A

1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.
2. John Donne. The following poems :
- Canonization;
- Death be not proud;
- The Good Morrow;
- On his Mistress going to bed;
- The Relic;
3. John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX
4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.
5. William Wordsworth. The following poems:
- Ode on Intimations of Immortality.
- Tintern Abbey.
- Three years she grew.
- She dwelt among untrodden ways.
- Michael.
- Resolution and Independence.
- The World is too much with us.
- Milton, thou should be living at this hour.
- Upon Westminster Bridge.
6. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam.
7. Henrik Ibsen : A Doll’s House.

Section-B

1. Jonathan Swift. Gulliver’s Travels.
2. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.
3. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.
4. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.
5. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.
6. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.
7. Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 

PAPER - ||

Answers must be written in English.
Texts for detailed study are listed below.
Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :
Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream-of-consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post- Colonialism; Indian Writing in English; Marxist, Psychoanalytical and Feminist approaches to literature; Post- Modernism.

Section-A

1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems:
- Easter 1916
- The Second Coming
- A Prayer for my daughter.
- Sailing to Byzantium.
- The Tower.
- Among School Children.
- Leda and the Swan.
- Meru
- Lapis Lazuli
- The Second Coming
- Byzantium.


2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems :
- The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock
- Journey of the Magi.
- Burnt Norton.
3. W.H. Auden. The following poems :
- Partition
- Musee des Beaux Arts
- in Memory of W.B. Yeats
- Lay your sleeping head, my love
- The Unknown Citizen
- Consider
- Mundus Et Infans
- The Shield of Achilles
- September 1, 1939
- Petition.


4. John Osborne : Look Back in Anger.
5. Samuel Beckett. Waiting for Godot.
6. Philip Larkin. The following poems :
- Next
- Please
- Deceptions
- Afternoons
- Days
- Mr. Bleaney
7. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems :
- Looking for a Causim on a Swing
- A River
- Of Mothers, among other Things
- Love Poem for a Wife 1
- Small-Scale Reflections on a Great House
- Obituary
(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).

Section-B

1. Joseph Conrad. Lord Jim.
2. James Joyce. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
3. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.
4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.
5. Virginia Woolf. Mrs. Dalloway.
6. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.
7. V.S. Naipal. A House for Mr. Biswas. 

PAPER – I

(Answers must be written in Gujarati)
Section-A
Gujarati Language : Form and history
1. History of Gujarati Language with special reference to New Indo-Aryan i.e. last one thousand years.
2. Significant features of the Gujarati language: Phonology, morphology and syntax.
3. Major dialects: Surti, charotari and Saurashtri.

History of Gujarati Literature
Medieval :
4. Jaina tradition
5. Bhakti tradition: Sagun and Nirgun (Jnanmargi)
6. Non-sectarian tradition (Laukik parampara)
Modern:
7. Sudharak yug
8. Pandit yug
9. Gandhi yug
10. Anu-Gandhi yug
11. Adhunik yug

Section-B

Literary Forms : (Salient features, history and development of the following literary forms):
(a) Medieval
1. Narratives: Rasa, Akhyan and Padyavarta
2. Lyrical: Pada
(b) Folk
3. Bhavai
(c) Modern
4. Fiction: Novel and short story
5. Drama
6. Literary Essay
7. Lyrical Poetry
(d) Criticism
8. History of theoretical Gujarati criticism
9. Recent research in folk tradition. 

PAPER - II

(Answers must be written in Gujarati)
The paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidate.

Section-A

1. Medieval

(i) Vasantvilas phagu-AJNATKRUT

(ii) Kadambari-BHALAN

(iii) Sudamacharitra-PREMANAND

(iv) Chandrachandravatini varta-SHAMAL

(v) Akhegeeta-AKHO

2. Sudharakyug & Pandityug

  • (vi) Mari Hakikat
  • (vii) Farbasveerah
  • (viii)Saraswatichandra-Part-I
  • (ix) Purvalap
  • (x) Raino Parvat
  • - NARMADASHANKAR DAVE
  • - DALPATRAM
  • - GOVARDHANRAM TRIPATHI
  • -'KANT' (MANISHANKAR RATNAJI BHATT)
  • - RAMANBHAI NEELKANTH

 

 

 

 

Section-B

1. Gandhiyug & Anu Gandhiyug

  • (i) Hind Swaraj
  • (ii) Patanni Prabhuta
  • (iii) Kavyani Shakti
  • (iv) Saurashtrani Rasdhar Part 1
  • (v) Manvini Bhavai
  • (vi) Dhvani
  • - MOHANDAS KARMACHAND GANDHI
  • - KANHAIYALAL MUNSHI
  • - RAMNARAYAN VISH-WANATH PATHAK
  • -ZAVERCHAND MEGHANI
  • - PANNALAL PATEL
  • - RAJENDRA SHAH

 

 

 

 

 

2. Adhunik yug

  • (vii) Saptapadi
  • (viii)Janantike
  • (ix) Ashwatthama
  • - UMASHANKAR JOSHI
  • - SURESH JOSHI
  • - SITANSHU YASHASCHANDRA

 

 

 

7. HINDI

PAPER - I

(Answers must be written in Hindi)

Section-A

1. History of Hindi Language and Lipi.
I. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
II. Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period.
III. Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
IV. Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
V. Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
VI. Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
VII. The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
VIII. Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
IX. Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter- relationship. X. Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
XI. Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.

Section-B

2. History of Hindi Literature.

I. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
II. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A. Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.
Prominent poets - Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati. B. Bhaktikal - Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
Prominent Poets - Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C. Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.

Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.

D. Adhunik Kal

  •  Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
  •  Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
  •  Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad, Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.

Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.

III. Katha Sahitya

A. Upanyas & Realism
B. The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
C. Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
D. The origin and development of Hindi short story.
E. Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.

IV. Drama & Theatre
A. The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
B. Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
C. The development of Hindi Theatre.

V. Criticism

A. The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
B. Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.

VI. The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatravrittant.

PAPER – II

(Answers must be written in Hindi)
This paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.

Section-A

  • 1. Kabir
  • 2. Surdas
  • 3. Tulsidas
  • 4. Jayasi
  • 5. Bihari
  • 6. Maithili
  • 7. Prasad
  • 8. Nirala
  • 9. Dinkar
  • 10. Muktiboth
  • 11. Nagarjun
  • :    Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
  • :    Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
  • :    Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
  • :    Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
  • :    Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 10a0 Dohas)
  • :    Bharat Bharati Sharan Gupta
  • :    Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
  • :    Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
  • :    Kurushetra 10. Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
  • :    Brahma Rakshas
  • :    Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section-B

  • 1. Bharatendu
  • 2. Mohan Rakesh
  • 3. Ramchandra Shukla
  • : Bharat Durdasha
  • : Ashad Ka Ek Din
  • : Chintamani (Part I).

 

 

 

(Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)

  • 4. Dr. Satyendra
  • 5. Premchand
  • 6. Prasad
  • 7. Yashpal
  • 8. Phaniswar Nath Renu
  • 9. Mannu Bhandari
  • 10. Rajendra Yadav
  • : Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
  • : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai/Manjusha - Prem Chand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai.
  • : Skandgupta
  • : Divya
  • : Maila Anchal
  • : Mahabhoj
  • : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)