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22 July 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog

Note: this answer has been written for the purposes of explanation; Hence, it may not adhere to word limit. For examination purposes, phrases instead of full sentences could be used.

  • INTRODUCTION:

· The above case is about Rameshwar, who has discovered that various malpractices such as diversion of funds, abuse of power and use of illegitimate means in exams are happening in the department where he is posted. However, he has been advised to turn a blind eye towards the same.

· An evaluation of the various options available to Rameshwar, follows:

1. Option 1- Approach seniors with a formal report of all the malpractices and take action to the extent possible at your designation.

Merits

Demerits

Respecting lines of authority

May have bad repercussions for career

Taking seniors into confidence

 

Fulfilling duty obligations by taking action

 

Not giving in to malpractices

 

2. Option 2- Take action against the malpractices to the best of your capacity

Merits

Demerits

Fulfilling duty obligations by taking action

Not Respecting lines of authority

Not giving in to malpractices

Not Taking seniors into confidence

Exhibiting courage and fortitude

May have bad repercussions for career

   

3. Option 3- Report the malpractices to the media to bring them out to the public

Merits

Demerits

Fulfilling obligation to serve public interest and maintain transparency

Breach of trust of organisation

Not giving in to malpractices

Not Respecting lines of authority

Exhibiting courage and fortitude

Not Taking seniors into confidence

 

May have bad repercussions for career

4. Option 4- Letting things be- not taking any action

Merits

Demerits

Avoids any personal harm

Not Fulfilling duty obligations to check wrongdoings

 

giving in to malpractices and not catering to public interest

 

Exhibiting lack of courage and fortitude

 

Shows lack of initiative

22 July 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog

The article talks about the need to frame a strategic diaspora security policy in order to tackle the troubled times.

  • In recent times, India has to evacuate its Indians settled in foreign land due to war, internal conflict and terrorist activities.
  • All the operations categorically demonstrate that strategic mass evacuations have become a recurrent feature with immense pressure on the government of the day “to do something very quickly”.
  • It is timely to look at this issue strategically with an eye on capacity mapping and getting operating bases overseas. It also involves huge transaction costs that need to be borne by the exchequer.
  • In times of a crisis like an armed conflict that has the ability to escalate suddenly, the reaction time available with the ministry of external affairs, Indian embassies and missions abroad is extremely short.
  • Quick and correct decision-making also requires the availability of maximum number of operational assets to support a successful evacuation.
  • The current lift capacity might fall woefully inadequate in times of a large-scale evacuation.
  • There are approximately 7.3 million Indians in West Asia. However, evacuating even a fraction of these, for instance from Doha, Qatar, when the need arises might be extremely challenging.
  • At best, only a few thousand can be taken out per day using military aircraft and ships. If the operations are to be sustained for a longer duration, maintenance, repair, overhaul, turnaround times, etc., further erode the lift capacity.
  • In a recent study by the Takshashila Institution, it has been estimated that it will take between 11 and 37 days under certain constraints, to evacuate less than half of the Indians from Riyadh using commercial as well as military capabilities.
  • Therefore, in order to bolster the capacity and have a strategic lift policy in place, there are certain steps that the government needs to initiate urgently.
  • Firstly, secure rights to use assets that are not under direct government control.
    • The earlier evacuations have primarily been driven by the Indian Navy, Air Force and public sector commercial airline Air India.
    • There is a need for a policy in which the government can call for aircraft and ships which are under private operators.
    • Thus, there should be a licensing clause with commercial airlines which mandates that they will make their aircraft and crew available during times of crises for evacuation operations anywhere in the world.
  • Secondly, have standing agreements between Indian embassies/missions abroad and private logistics operators.
    • Before evacuation by ship or aircraft, the widely dispersed diaspora may need to be transported by road to the centralized evacuation airport or port.
    • A standing agreement with international logistics companies and transport operators with insurance liabilities will facilitate immediate movement of the people to the focal point of evacuation.
  • Thirdly, forge agreements with friendly countries for sea and air bases.
    • Assuming that the host country bases are not usable for obvious reasons in times of crisis, the government should have arrangements with friendly countries in every region where there is a high concentration of diaspora.
    • As evacuation by air would be the fastest, having access to safe airfields close to conflict zones will be highly desirable. This will need to take into consideration the issues of territoriality and sovereignty for operating Indian military and civil aircraft.

Question:Strategic mass evacuations of Indian nationals from strife-torn nations have become a recurrent feature. But resources employed are limited. In order to bolster the capacity, we need strategic diaspora security policy. Discuss.
Suggested Approach

  1. Current resources to evacuate citizens.
  2. Limitations faced due to present ways.
  3. Suggestions to be included in new policy.

Link: http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/1Y8a4IMiP8ibfiXnRNvZpN/A-strategic-diaspora-security-policy.html

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22 July 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog

National Urban Health Mission

  • The National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a sub-mission of National Health Mission (NHM) has been approved by the Cabinet on 1st May 2013.
  • NUHM envisages to meet health care needs of the urban population with the focus on urban poor, by making available to them essential primary health care services and reducing their out of pocket expenses for treatment.
  • This will be achieved by strengthening the existing health care service delivery system, targeting the people living in slums and converging with various schemes relating to wider determinants of health like drinking water, sanitation, school education, etc. implemented by the Ministries of Urban Development, Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Human Resource Development and Women & Child Development.
  • NUHM seeks to improve the health status of the urban population particularly slum dwellers and other vulnerable sections by facilitating their access to quality primary health care.
  • NUHM would cover all state capitals, district headquarters and other cities/towns with a population of 50,000 and above (as per census 2011) in a phased manner. Cities and towns with population below 50,000 will be covered under NRHM.

NUHM Goals

  • Need based city specific urban health care system to meet the diverse health care needs of the urban poor and other vulnerable sections.
  • Institutional mechanism and management systems to meet the health-related challenges of a rapidly growing urban population.
  • Partnership with community and local bodies for a more proactive involvement in planning, implementation, and monitoring of health activities.
  • Availability of resources for providing essential primary health care to urban poor.
  • Partnerships with NGOs, for profit and not for profit health service providers and other stakeholders.

NUHM Framework for Implementation

  • In order to effectively address the health concerns of the urban poor population, the Ministry has launched the sub-mission National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) under NHM.
  • The Mission Steering Group of the NHM will be expanded to work as the apex body for NUHM also. Every Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, and Town Panchayat will become a unit of planning with its own approved broad norms for setting up of health facilities.
  • The separate plans for Notified Area Committees, Town Panchayats and Municipalities will be part of the District Health Action Plan drawn up for sub-mission NUHM.
  • The Municipal Corporations will have a separate plan of action as per broad norms for urban areas. The existing structures and mechanisms of governance under NHM will be suitably adapted to fulfill the needs of sub-mission NUHM also.

NUHM Cover

  • NUHM would cover all State capitals, district headquarters and cities/towns with a population of more than 50000.
  • It would primarily focus on slum dwellers and other marginalized groups like rickshaw pullers, street vendors, railway and bus station coolies, homeless people, street children, construction site workers.

Funding Pattern

  • The centre-state funding pattern will be 75:25 for all the States except North-Eastern states including Sikkim and other special category states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, for whom the centre-state funding pattern will be 90:10.
  • The Programme Implementation Plans (PIPs) sent by the by the states are apprised and approved by the Ministry.