Chief Of Defence Staff
August 20, 2019
August 22, 2019


  • Despite repeated assertions of its right to a permanent seat at the UN Security Council, India’s campaign for expansion of the UNSC has slowed down.

About UNSC:

  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN) charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter.
  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members.
  • The great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union (now represented by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, Republic of China (now represented by the People’s Republic of China), and the United States – serve as the body’s five permanent members.
  • These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General.
  • In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years.
  • The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.

Why UNSC needs reforms:

  • The changing geopolitical realities and enlargement of UN membership have put into question the Council’s effectiveness and legitimacy.
  • Emphasized by the inability to address recent conflicts and humanitarian crises in Syria, Gaza and Ukraine and galvanized by the recent passing of the Kutesa Consensus on September 15, 2015, has set the stage for negotiations. UNSC reform is now firmly back in the spotlight.
  • In order to enhance regional representation, there is a consensus that the council must be enlarged to improve the current makeup, giving more weight to regions such as Africa, the Asia-Pacific and Latin America/Caribbean states, especially when most agenda issues centre on these regions.
  • An enlarged Council would address any democratic deficit and improve multilateralism.

India’s need for a seat in UNSC:

  • To ensure the protection of national interest in crucial diplomatic moments when the organ takes up contentious issues such as Kashmir.
  • India has insisted on getting bilateral assurance from visiting heads of states and governments, but permanent member countries such as the U.K., the U.S., Russia and France have expressed support bilaterally without actively collaborating with India in the UN for expanding the council.

Why India deserves a seat in the UNSC:

  • India is home to more than 1.2 billion people and the second most populous country in the world. Any decision that will be taken for the world peace will affect our country hence having a permanent seat in UNSC will help to look after our own country along with peace in the world.
  • Growing economic stature
  • India has sent more than 150000 troops for more than 40 peacekeeping missions by the UN. This growing global responsibility of peacekeeping cannot be ignored.

Way Forward:

  • A more aggressive campaign within the organs of the UN is required to push for a UNGA resolution to expand the UN Security Council.
  • Diplomats have blamed China for having quietly carried out a campaign to stop the draft resolution from acquiring speed. Veteran diplomats have said that the latest UNSC meeting on Kashmir which was convened following an initiative from China showed that India will have to show more “stamina” to stop China from using the organ against India’s interest.
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