Social infrastructure & Employment Generation
Unemployment is indirectly proportional to job creation India, despite having the largest workforce continues to register large-scale unemployment and jobless growth.
- Less stock of capital compared to the rising workforce.
- Capital-intensive industries on the rise, due to unskilled manual labor and rigorous labor laws.
- Inequitable distribution of land, giving less scope for more production in agriculture.
- Inverted duty structure in manufacturing has made domestic goods expensive and Less competitive.
- Underutilization of surplus labor in agriculture and improper developmental strategy.
Following steps could be taken to address this problem:
- Special packages must be provided to labour-intensive sectors.Eg: Special package provided to apparel and garment by Ministry of textiles.
- Public expenditure on education, health, police and judiciary must be stepped up.
- Infrastructural development and support like roads, power, irrigation etc. must be done to create more jobs and attract investment.
- More jobs must be created and allowed to women to leverage their potential skill for production and management.
Way forward: It took us to cross 11 five-year plans, to end up with National Manufacturing policy in the 12th five-year plan. With various policies and schemes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, National urban livelihoods mission, a new ministry for Skill development and entrepreneurship and increase in ITIs, India has started to progress in the right direction.