Pradhan Mantri Yuva Yojana
Rise of India as a Soft Power

Relevance and use of the article in UPSC prelims and mains examination:

Dear aspirants this article is about the recently concluded marrakesh proclamation which is The COP 22 to the UNFCCC, 12th session of COP of Parties to Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), and first session of COP of Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) were held in Marrakech, Morocco. Nearly 200 nations attending the COP 22 to the UNFCCC have adopted Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development. The 11-day meeting concluded with all participating member nations collectively reaffirming their commitment to climate action under Paris Agreement adopted in November 2015.

Key findings of proclamation:

  • This Proclamation It is urgent duty of countries to respond global warming which is warming the climate at an alarming and unprecedented rate.
  • It is necessary for rapid entry into force of the Paris Agreement with its ambitious goals, its inclusive nature and its reflection of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.
  • Countries affirm their commitment to full implementation of the Paris Agreement which also reflects respective capabilities in light of different national circumstances of countries.
  • The nations demanded solidarity with those countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
  • It highlighted the need to support efforts aimed at enhancing their adaptive capacity, to strengthen resilience and to reduce vulnerability of most vulnerable countries.
  • The countries called for an increase in the volume, flow and access to finance for climate projects, alongside improved capacity and technology.
  • Developed Country Parties, reaffirm our $100 billion mobilisation goal. The nations, who are parties to Kyoto Protocol (which does not include the US) should ratify of the Doha Amendment, with its focus on pre-2020 action. Called for urgently raising ambition and strengthening cooperation among the countries to close the gap between current emissions trajectories.
  • Strengthen and support efforts to eradicate poverty, ensure food security and to take stringent action to deal with climate change challenges in agriculture.

Issues need to be addressed yet:

  • While remaining vocal for implementation of Paris accord in different forums, the LDCs including Bangladesh ought to continue to put pressure on the developed countries for financial aid
  • It is encouraging to know that at the UN climate summit in Marrakesh, Morocco, the participating nations from the world expressed their solid commitment to implement the hard-earned Paris Agreement to restrict global warming below 2 degrees Celsius.
  • “Marrakesh Action Proclamation” says “Our climate is warming at an alarming and unprecedented rate and we have an urgent duty to respond”.
  • Since the poor countries are bearing brunt of climate change most, they would be deprived of money in aid if the course of the Paris accord comes to a stop.
  • Experts on climate change grimly predict that global warming over 2C will result in land-gobbling sea level rise, worsening storms and droughts and spread of disease. Bangladesh already faced these challenges in the past years and in future the challenges will be harder to face. While remaining vocal for implementation of Paris accord in different forums, the LDCs including Bangladesh, ought to continue to put pressure on the developed countries to extend their financial and technical supports to climate vulnerable countries.
  • It is expected that the Green Climate Fund (GCF) within the framework of the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change does not come to nothing.

Getting real on climate

  • The UN conference on climate change held in Marrakech, with an emphasis on raising the commitment of all countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is particularly significant as it provided an opportunity to communicate concerns about the future climate policy of the U.S.
  • It would be untenable for the U.S., with a quarter of all cumulative fossil fuel emissions, to renege on its promise to assist vulnerable and developing nations with climate funding, technology transfer and capacity-building under Donald Trump’s presidency.
  • As the Marrakech Action Proclamation issued at the close of the conference emphasises, the world needs all countries to work together to close the gap between their intended reduction of carbon emissions and what needs to be done to keep the rise of the global average temperature well below 2°C in this century.
  • The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change will hear from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2018 on what impact an additional warming of 1.5°C could have on the planet and what can be done to ensure it is pegged at this level. The pledges made so far are well short of this target, and even if they are all implemented, a minimum rise of 2.9°C is forecast by the UN Environment Programme. India has no historical responsibility for accumulated GHGs, but smaller, more vulnerable countries such as island states and Bangladesh are demanding action to cut emissions. A strategy that involves all State governments will strengthen the case for international funding, and spur domestic action.

Marrakech Message conclusion:

  1. Developing countries will step up, instead of waiting for industrialised nations to take the lead on climate change.
  2. The biggest takeaway from Marrakesh, however, is that, unlike in the past, the developing countries are not going to be bogged down by the stingy ways of the industrialised countries. At the sidelines of CoP 22, India took the lead in cementing the International Solar Alliance — a group of developed and developing nations that aims to make solar power competitive vis-a-vis conventional energy.
  3. A 47-nation coalition, that includes some of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, pledged to chart a roadmap to clean energy. The US under Trump, and the West at large, will go against the momentum if they remain indifferent to such initiatives.

Discuss the significance of the Marrakech Action Proclamation. (200 Words)

Suggested points:

  1. Discuss about the recently concluded Marrakesh Action Proclamation.
  2. What are the added features of this proclamation.
  3. Role of regime change in US on this proclamation.
  4. Key findings for developing countries.
  5. What are policy changes associated for this issue.
  6. Suggetions.
  7. Conclusion.


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