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25 March 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog


Technology vision 2035 foresees the Indians of 2035, and technologies required for fulfilling their needs. It is not a visualization of technologies that will be available in 2035, but a vision of where our country and its citizens should be in 2035 and how technology should bring this vision to fruition. The document is dedicated to late Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam,the former President of India. The role of technology in the economic progress of a nation is well recognized and appreciated, efforts are being made globally to develop technology strengths and make the industries competitive, for well-rounded development of the society. The developing countries specially have shown a marked rise in the pace of economic growth in recent years with focus on Science, Technology & Innovations.If the trends available are to be believed, there is likely to be a shift in economic power towards the third world countries in the 21st century. Changes in the global economic scenario, growing aspirations of Indian population for better living and the fact that India would be a developed nation by 2035, have challenged TIFAC (Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council) to delineate a Vision for the country. Having commended Technology Vision 2020 in the 1990s to catapult India into the league of developed countries, TIFAC has now geared-up itself to deliver Technology Vision 2035 for India.


The Aim of this 'Technology Vision Document 2035' is to ensure theSecurity, Enhancing of Prosperity, and Enhancing Identity of every Indian,which is stated in the document as "Our Aspiration"or "Vision Statement"in all languages of the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. The Vision documents also identifies twelve (12) prerogatives- (six for meeting individual needs and six for the collective needs) that should be available to each and every Indian. These are:

Individual Prerogatives:

  • Clean air and potable water
  • Food and nutritional security
  • Universal healthcare and public hygiene
  • 24x7 energy
  • Decent habitat
  • Quality education, livelihood and creative opportunities

Collective Prerogatives

  • Safe and speedy mobility
  • Public safety and national security
  • Cultural diversity and vibrancy
  • Transparent and effective governance
  • Disaster and climate resilience
  • Eco-friendly conservation of natural resources

Areas of focus

1. Education

It is salutary to note that 2035 would mark 200 years of Macaulay's Minute on Education, a document that, for better and for worse, has had a determining impact on (a) the content and methodology of what has been and is being taught in Indian educational institutions and (b) the medium of instruction through which these have been and continue to be taught. TV 2035 exercise gives us an opportunity to assess where are and would be, in terms of both education and technology. We can capitalize on this opportunity to think afresh and aloud, to draw contours of an education system befitting India of 2035."Realizing the full potential of every Indian" is their collective goal and universal aspiration and hence our vision statement for the Education Sector under TV2035.

2. Energy

India growing population and need for economic growth is intricately linked with higher energy consumption in all sectors either for domestic, transport, industry or agriculture use. Changing lifestyle, rising people's aspiration for better quality of life and need to increase the country's human development index, India is poised to increase its energy demand & consumption. Currently India is facing acute gap between supply and demand of energy and challenges are ahead to us to maintain sustainable growth and provide electricity to unreached (especially in rural areas). We citizens are decisive factor for India future energy consumption and to ponder over what kind of energy sources/technology is required in coming next few decades. Whether, we need, all together a new/alternative source and supply of energy in the wake of present energy crisis is matter of thinking. In view of above, TIFAC has taken an enormous task to build Energy Technology Vision 2035 for the country by adopting a consultative approach.

3. Environment

There is broad consensus that tackling the increasing global environmental problems will require the support of technology. Consequently, environmental technologies are regarded as one of the fastest growing global markets. India is facing numerous environmental challenges that it will be difficult to overcome without the aid of new eco-efficient technologies. The aim is for environmental, development and economic growth to go hand in hand.

4. Food and agriculture

Agriculture helps to meet the basic needs of human and their civilization by providing food, clothing, shelters, medicine and recreation. Hence, agriculture is the most important enterprise in the world. Agriculture forms the backbone of the Indian economy and despite concerted industrialization in the last 65 years since Independence, agriculture still occupies a place of pride. It provides the food grains to feed the large population of over 1.2 billion. It is also the supplier of raw material to many industries. Thus, the very economic structure of the country rests upon agriculture.

5. Global challenge issue

Global warming is too serious for the world any longer to ignore its danger or split into opposing factions on it.

6. Habitat

Housing, as one of the three basic needs of life, always remains the top priority of any person and society at large. Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person's physical, psychological, social and economic wellbeing and is a fundamental part of basic livelihood. A safe home is a starting point for a family for further socio-economic development through social organization, education and employment. It gives a feeling of security. Community relationship, which is the power and strength of any society, becomes stronger when people feel ownership in their house. However, greater number of population in India live either without or very temporary shelter.

7. Information and communication

Information and Communication Technology / Electronics Technology has emerged as a major driver over the last 25 years impacting the way we educate ourselves, the way we live, the way we work and the way we entertain. 25 years back, it would have been difficult to imagine the extent to which this sector would influence our lives. India has gained immensely from this sector, there is no sector left be it is Medical sciences, education, transportation, agriculture where the ICT intervention is not felt. We have to further substantially enhance our contributions towards driving this technology.

8. Infrastructure

Infrastructure is at the very heart of economic and social development of any Nation across the world. It provides the foundations for virtually all modern-day economic activity, constitute a major economic sector in their own right, and contribute importantly to raising living standards and the quality of life. However, infrastructure also has less desirable consequences. The next decades are likely to see an accentuation of two facets of infrastructure. On the one hand, Infrastructure will prove as a vital tool in resolving some of the major challenges faced by societies - supporting economic growth, meeting basic needs, lifting millions of people out of poverty, facilitating mobility and social interaction. On the other, environmental pressures in the form of changing climatic conditions, congestion and so on are likely to increase, turning the spotlight firmly on the inherent tensions between the imperative for further infrastructure development and the quest for sustainability.

9. Materials and manufacturing

Materials play an ubiquitous role in the products used by the common man in his day to day life, ranging from ordinary wrist watches to optic fibres. Materials also contribute a major share in the development of industry, infrastructure and a wide array of consumer goods. In the area of Materials, India enjoys a comparative advantage mainly because of the significant resource endowments, excellent R&D infrastructure, Engineering and Manufacturing capabilities, large domestic market and highly qualified scientists and technologists. Globally scientists predict that unprecedented discoveries of new materials will occur in the future which will significantly affect producers and users. In materials technology, a seemingly small improvement can open up massive market opportunities. It is rather, therefore, not surprising that TIFAC has identified Materials as one the thematic areas to be covered in its Technology Vision 2035 document, being prepared for our country.

10. Medical science and health care

Aiming for becoming a developed economy in the future, we envision a Healthy India where individuals make better decisions around their nutrition, health and wellness regardless of caste, creed, gender and socioeconomic status thereby reducing the disease-burden due to the changing life-style. A holistic approach is proposed by TIFAC under Technology Vision 2035 Exercise to bring in a new health care ecosystem which will be better-equipped to fully utilize the potential of technological innovations encompassing to each bench of population.

11. Transportation

Transportation is the foundation of our entire economy and quality of life. It links us to the global economy, allowing us to import and export both goods and materials, moving people and ideas anywhere, anytime, on time at an affordable price.

12. Water

Our dream is to provide accessibility to safe water and hygienic living conditions to all and on the types of water-using economic activities that we desire-and to organize to obtain it. It is desired to manage water use to conserve the quantity and quality of freshwater and ecosystems that provide services to the people and nation. Best water management practices is the need of time to produce more food and creating more sustainable livelihoods per unit of water applied. Existing technology/practices is either inadequate or not able to solve the present day water crisis in terms of availability, accessibility and quality. Management of water resources and ecosystem for equitable and sustainable manner is in dire need for the nation.


In order to get comprehensive insights into deep future, Advisory Committees comprising of expert groups have been formed to cover the 12 thematic areas

    • Educational Technologies
    • Energy Technologies
    • Environment
    • Food and Agriculture
    • Global challenge issues
    • Habitat
    • Information & Communication Technologies
    • Infrastructure
    • Materials & Manufacturing Technologies
    • Medical science & Health Care
    • Transportation
    • Water Technologies

These Committees are mandated to oversee generation of Scenario Reports for respective sectors. An apex body comprising of the social scientists, economists, S&T leaders and Chairpersons of Advisory Committees will guide in synthesis of Technology Vision 2035 from scenarios in the Reports from all the sectors put together. The draft document is proposed to be put in public domain for inviting suggestions before it is formally released.

18 March 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog


Human development is about enlarging human choices- focusing on the richness of human lives rather than simply the richness of economies. Critical to this process is work, which engages people all over the world in different ways and takes up a major part of their lives.

This year's Human Development Report explores how work can enhance human development, given that the world of work is changing fast and that substantial human development challenges remain. The Report takes a broad view of work, including voluntary work and creative work, thus going beyond jobs.

The Report concludes that work can enhance human development when policies expand productive, remunerative and satisfying work opportunities, enhance workers' skills and potential and ensure their rights, safety and well-being.

Work enhances human development, but some work damages human development and some work puts workers at risk. When positive, work provides benefits beyond material wealth and fosters community, knowledge, strengthens dignity and inclusion. Nearly a billion workers in agriculture, 450 million entrepreneurs, 80 million workers in health and education, 53 million domestic workers, 970 million voluntary workers contribute to human progress. When negative, in the form of forced labour, child labour and human trafficking, work can violate human rights, threaten freedom and shatter dignity. An estimated 21 million people are currently in forced labour of whom 14 million (67 percent) were exploited for labour and 4.5 million (22 percent) sexually exploited. There are still 168 million child labourers worldwide. And some work e.g. work in hazardous industries may put workers in risk. There are 30 million workers in mining and their face risks every day.

Over the past two decades, the world has made major strides in human development. Today, people are living longer, more children are going to school and more people have access to clean water and basic sanitation.

Since 1990, 2 billion people have been lifted out of low human development, extreme income poverty has been reduced by more than a billion. Every region of the world has seen Human Development Index (HDI) gains.

At the same time, human progress has been uneven with deep human deprivations. And significant human potential remains unused, misused and abused. More than 200 million people with 74 million young people are out of work, more than 800 million working poor are living on less than $2 a day.

Overcoming the existing human deprivations and addressing the emerging human development challenges will require optimal use of the world’s human potential.

Today, the transformation of work is driven by globalization and technological revolutions, particularly the digital revolution. Globalization has fostered global interdependence, with major impacts on patterns of trade, investment, growth and job creation and destruction—as well as on networks for creative and volunteer work. We seem to be living through new and accelerated technological revolutions. New opportunities are emerging, but so do new risks. In this new world of work there are winners, so are losers and human development impacts mixed.


Mobile phones and mobile Internet service offer many new opportunities and advantagesto workers and to economies more generally as:

  • Access to dynamic price information.
  • Productivity gains.
  • Job creation.
  • Supply chain management
  • Labour market services
  • Mobile banking.
  • Access to finance.

In 2015 the global labour force participation rate was 50 percent for women but 77 percent for men. Worldwide in 2015, 72 percent of working-age men were employed, compared with only 47 percent of women. Female participation in the labour force and employment rates are heavily affected by economic, social and cultural issues and care work distributions at home.

Men dominate the world of paid work, women the world of unpaid work. Of the 59 percent of work that is paid, mostly outside the home, men’s share is nearly twice that of women—38 percent versus 21 percent. The picture is reversed for unpaid work, mostly within the home and encompassing a range of care responsibilities: of the 41 percent of work that is unpaid, women perform three times more than men—31 percent versus 10 percent.

In the realm of paid work, women are engaged in the workforce less than men, their work tends to be more vulnerable (globally half of employed women are in vulnerable jobs) and they are under-represented in senior management (in businesses, women represent only 22 percent of senior managers.), reinforcing disadvantages. In the realm of unpaid work, women share more of the care burden (undertaking more childcare, care for elders and those with disabilities), which limits their options, discretionary free time and access to social pensions.

The report calls for reducing the burden of unpaid care work, expanding opportunities for women to engage in paid work. Outcomes could be improved by equal pay, flexible work, greater social protection, parental leave and addressing harassment and social norms that exclude women from work. There is also a need for valuing unpaid care work for advocacy and policy purposes.

Sustainable work refers to work that promotes human development while ensuring sustainability. It is critical not only for sustaining the planet, but also for ensuring work for future generations.

Some occupations can be expected to loom larger—railway technicians, for instance, as countries invest in mass transit systems. Terminated workers may predominate in sectors that draw heavily on natural resources or emit greenhouse gases or other pollutants. About 50 million people are employed globally in such sectors (7 million in coal mining, for example).

For sustainable work to become more widely prevalent, three developments are needed in parallel: termination, transformation and creation, each requiring specific actions by national and international policymakers, industry and other private sector actors, civil society and individuals.

  • Termination. Some existing work will have to end, and the workers displaced will need to be accommodated in other occupations (bottom-left square of the matrix in the infographic).
  • Transformation. Some existing work will need to be transformed in order to be preserved through a combination of investment in adaptable new technologies and retraining or skill upgrading (top-left and bottom-right).
  • Creation. Some work will be largely novel, benefiting both sustainability and human development, but will emerge from outside the current set of occupations (top-right square of the matrix in the infographic).

Sustainable work (in the top-right square of the matrix in the infographic) takes place in developed and developing economies, but it can differ in scale, in the conditions of work, in the links to human development and in the implications for policy.

Policy options for enhancing human development through work have to be built around three broad clusters:

  • creating more work opportunities to expand work choices
  • ensuring workers' well-being to reinforce a positive link between work and human development
  • targeted actions to address the challenges of specific groups and contexts.

An agenda for action to build momentum for change is also needed pursuing a three-pillar approach—a New Social Contract, a Global Deal and the Decent Work Agenda.

HDI- The Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index focusing on three basic dimensions of human development: to lead a long and healthy life, measured by life expectancy at birth; the ability to acquire knowledge, measured by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling; and the ability to achieve a decent standard of living, measured by gross national income per capita. The HDI has an upper limit of 1.0.

To measure human development more comprehensively, the Human Development Report also presents four other composite indices. The Inequality adjusted HDI discounts the HDI according to the extent of inequality. The Gender Development Index compares female and male HDI values. The Gender Inequality Index highlights women’s empowerment. And the Multidimensional Poverty Index measures non income dimensions of poverty.

The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes. These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.

The health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth, the education dimension is measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. The standard of living dimension is measured by gross national income per capita. The HDI uses the logarithm of income, to reflect the diminishing importance of income with increasing GNI. The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean.

10 March 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog


Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana is a unique initiative by the Government of India that aims to offer 24 lakh Indian youth meaningful, industry relevant, skill based training. Under this scheme, the trainees will be offered a financial reward and a government certification on successful completion of training and assessment, which will help them in securing a job for a better future. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) is the implementing agency for PMKVY.

The scheme would be implemented through NSDC training partners. Currently NSDC has 187 training partners that have over 2300 centres. In addition, Central / State Government affiliated training providers would also be used for training under the scheme. All training providers will have to undergo a due diligence before being eligible for participating under this scheme. Focus under the PMKVY would be on improved curricula, better pedagogy and better trained instructors. Training would include soft skills, personal grooming, behavioral change for cleanliness, good work ethics. Sector Skill Councils and the State Governments would closely monitor skill training that will happen under PMKVY.

Skill Development Management System (SDMS) would be put in place to verify and record details of all training centers a certain quality of training locations and courses. Biometric system and video recording of the training process would be put in place where feasible. All persons undergoing training would be required to give feedback at the time of assessment and this would become the key element of the evaluation framework to assess the effectiveness of the PMKVY scheme. A robust grievance redressal system would be put in place to address grievances relating to implementation of the scheme. An online citizen portal would be put in place to disseminate information about the scheme.


The objective of this Scheme is to encourage skill development for youth by providing monetary rewards for successful completion of approved training programs. Specifically, the Scheme aims to:

  • Encourage standardization in the certification process and initiate a process of creating a registry of skills
  • Enable and mobilize a large number of Indian youth to take up skill training and become employable and earn their livelihood. Increase productivity of the existing workforce and align the training and certification to the needs of the country.
  • Provide Monetary Awards for Skill Certification to boost employability and productivity of youth by incentivizing them for skill trainings
  • Reward candidates undergoing skill training by authorized institutions at an average monetary reward of Rs. 8,000 (Rupees Eight Thousand) per candidate.
  • Benefit 24 lakh youth at an approximate total cost of Rs. 1,500 crores


1. The Scheme will provide monetary incentives for successful completion of marketdriven skill training and certification to approximately 24 lakh youth in in a span of one year from the date of implementation of the scheme.

2. This Scheme shall be implemented through Public-Private and Public-Public partnerships.

3. NSDC will be the implementing agency for this Scheme

4. All trainings and certification under Recognition of Prior Learning will be specifically oriented for developing skills in specific growth sectors

5. Assessment and training bodies for all purposes of the Scheme will be separate and no overlap of roles will be allowed to maintain transparency and objectivity.

6. The monetary reward will be wholly funded by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Government of India and will be affected through bank transfer to the beneficiaries' accounts. For facilitating the smooth disbursement as prescribed under the scheme, the entire money along with the additional implementation fund will be transferred to National Skill Development Fund for further utilization by NSDC.


  • Leverage existing government infrastructure to deliver skill training programmes
  • Mobilize CSR funds of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) to support skilling
  • Upgrade equipment of Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and NSDC/SSC affiliated training providers
  • Promote and scale up apprenticeship training in PSUs in coordination with Directorate General of Training (DGT)
  • Incentivize hiring of National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) certified personnel
  • Promote adoption of ITIs by PSUs, including provision of technical and resource support
  • Introduce vocational courses in schools run by Ministries/PSUs
  • Establish 'Centres of Excellence' for high quality skill training
  • Align training programmes to NSQF and mobilize workforce for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)


Please find below the process divided into flowing steps:

  • Trainee to enroll at a training center with a training partner and select a course of his preference
  • Trainee to provide relevant information to the Training Partner who captures all the candidate details on SDMS to facilitate training
  • Undergo assessment at the training center
  • Receive certificate from the training partner upon successful completion of assessment
  • NSDC to disburse monetary reward to passed and certified trainees subject to valid Aadhaar authentication


Upon successful assessment, the trainee will be given a certificate as well as a monetary reward of an average of Rs 8,000 per trainee.Monetary reward for various job roles within a sector varies for different as per job role levels. Higher incentives are being given to training in manufacturing, construction and plumbing sectors.
The monetary reward will be wholly funded by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, India, and will be effected through direct bank transfer to the beneficiary's account.


1. NSDC - The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) has been instituted to foster private sector initiatives in skill development. It is a Private Public Partnership (PPP) organization with representatives of Government and Industry Associations on its Board.

2. SSCs - Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) are industry-led bodies, who would be responsible for the defining the skilling needs, concept, processes, certification, accreditation of their respective industry sectors. The SSCs shall prescribe the NOSs and QPs for the job roles relevant to their industry, and shall work with the NSDA to ensure that these are in accordance with the NSQF.

3. NSQF - The National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF), would be a descriptive framework that organizes qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude. These levels are defined in terms of learning outcomes i.e., the competencies which the learners must possess regardless of whether they were acquired through formal, non-formal or informal education and training. It is, therefore, a nationally integrated education and competency based skill framework that will provide for multiple pathways both within vocational education and vocational training and among vocational education, vocational training, general education and technical education, thus linking one level of learning to another higher level to enable a person to acquire desired skill levels, transit to the job market and return to skill development to further upgrade their skill sets.

4. NOSs - National Occupational Standards (NOSs) specify the standard of performance an individual must achieve when carrying out a particular activity in the workplace, together with the knowledge and understanding they need to meet that standard consistently. Each NOS defines one key function in a job role. In their essential form, NOSs describe functions, standards of performance and knowledge/understanding

5. QPs - A set of NOSs, aligned to a job role, called Qualification Packs (QPs), would be available for every job role in each industry sector. These drive both the creation of curriculum, and assessments. These job roles would be at various proficiency levels and aligned to the NSQF.NOSs and QPs for job roles in various industry sectors, created by SSCs and subsequently ratified by appropriate authority, would be available online and updated from time to time.

6. SDMS - The Skill Development Management System (SDMS) has been developed and maintained by the NSDC

04 March 2016 K2_CATEGORY IAS Blog


Realising that the large scale population was exposed to various kinds of diseases due to lack of sanitation facilities the government of India has advancing the earlier target of making India free from open defecation by 2022 to 2019 by launching a massive Swachh Bharat Mission. 2019 coincides with the 150th Birth Anniversary year of Mahatma Gandhi who considered sanitation more important than even Independence.

An Action plan has been drawn up to make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 2019, to keep villages clean through construction of individual, cluster & community toilets and through solid and liquid waste management with active participation of village Gram Panchayats (GPs). It also aims at enabling water tap make connection to households on demand by 2019.

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) will be restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission with two sub-Missions - Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).

Over 2.5 billion people mostly in rural areas across the world do not have proper sanitation facilities and over one billion people defecate in the open due to lack of proper toilet facilities. The situation is no better in our country where more than half of the population defecates in the open. It is well known that countries where open defecation is most widely practiced are the same countries with the highest numbers of under-five child deaths, high levels of under-nutrition and poverty, and large wealth disparities.


The Mission has following components:-

  • Construction of Household Toilets,
  • Community and Public Toilets,
  • Solid Waste Management,
  • Information, Education & Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness,
  • Capacity Building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE).


Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) have the following objectives:-

  • Eliminate open defecation,
  • Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets,
  • Eradication of manual scavenging,
  • 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal reuse/recycle of Municipal Solid Waste,
  • To bring about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices,
  • Generate awareness among the citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health.
  • Strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems,
  • To create enabling environment for private sector participation in Capital Expenditure and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) have the following objectives:-

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019 with all Gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


Swachh Bharat is proposed to be achieved through:-

  • Coverage of all rural households with IHHLs, cluster toilets, community toilets (including through PPP mode), construction of school and anganwadi toilets and SLWM activities in all Gram Panchayats;
  • Creation of enhanced demand, convergent action through various agencies and stakeholders with triggering through enhanced IEC, Inter Personal Communication (IPC);
  • Strengthening of implementation and delivery mechanisms;
  • Monitoring Outputs (construction) and Outcomes (use) at the Gram Panchayat and household levels leading to Swachh Bharat.


Funding for these new initiatives will be through the following:

  • Budgetary allocations
  • Contributions to the Swachh Bharat Kosh
  • Through commitments under Corporate Social responsibility (CSR)
  • Funding assistance from multilateral sources


The Action plan is centered around the following:

      While the mass media can create awareness and bring changes in attitude, what is significant is the creation of necessary infra structure for construction of toilets in the villages and laying of pipe lines for supply of water in a time bound manner , this involves the provision of material and adequate funding . The Action plan proposes the use of Revolving Funds in construction linked-instalments to provide advance to poor households who cannot afford initial construction cost or to Gram Panchayats in construction linked instalments to be finally recouped against incentives released on completion of the toilets.

    To bring in behavioral change is the biggest challenge before the government. A National Reachout Campaign has been unleashed towards this end.

The measures include:
i) A continuous door to door contact with every rural household in the country on the lines of the Pulse Polio campaign so that the people can be made aware of the importance of using a toilet and the consequences of not doing so.
ii) Launching of a National and State Level Media campaign making use of audio visual, mobile telephony and local outreach programmes to communicate the message.
iii) Involvement of Social, Local, Sports or Movie Icons in Sanitation messaging. Already cricket icon Sachin Tendulkar and many movie stars have joined the campaign.
iv) Community Mobilization is an important step to turn the campaign into a mass movement. It is not just the involvement of ASHA workers, Self Help Groups and other NGOS which is already being done but also using School children as a medium to influence families.
v) Involving school children as messengers of Change on ‘WASH’ – Water, Sanitation and Hygiene and including inputs in the school curriculum till Class X.
vi) Getting Doctors, teachers, local political and religious leaders involved in the Sanitation Communication, is also part of this Mission approach.