Chanakya IAS Academy Blog

Universal Immunization Programme

Evolution of the programme:

  • 1978: Expanded Programme of immunization (EPI).  
  • Limited reach - mostly urban
  • 1985: Universal Immunization Programme (UIP).  
  • For reduction of mortality and morbidity due to 6 VPD’s.  
  • Indigenous vaccine production capacity enhanced
  • Cold chain established
  • Phased implementation - all districts covered by 1989-90.  
  • Monitoring and evaluation system implemented
  • 1986: Technology Mission On Immunization  
  • Monitoring under PMO’s 20 point programme  
  • Coverage in infants (0 – 12 months) monitored
  • 1992: Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM)
  • Included both UIP and Safe motherhood program
  • 1997: Reproductive Child Health (RCH 1)
  • 2005: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

Vaccines under UIP

  • Under UIP, following vaccines are provided:
  • BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)
  • DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus Toxoid)
  • OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine)
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • TT (Tetanus Toxoid)
  • JE vaccination (in selected high disease burden districts)
  • Hib containing Pentavalent vaccine (DPT+HepB+Hib) (In selected States)

Diseases Protected by Vaccination under UIP

  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis.
  • Tetanus
  • Polio
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • Japanese Encephalitis ( commonly known as brain fever)
  • Meningitis and Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus Influenzae type b


  • The stated objectives of UIP are:
  • To rapidly increase immunization coverage.  
  • To improve the quality of services.  
  • To establish a reliable cold chain system to the health facility level.  

Monitoring of performance.  

  • To achieve self sufficiency in vaccine production.  

Scope and eligibility:

  • India has one of the largest Universal Immunization Programs (UIP) in the world in terms of the quantities of vaccines used, number of beneficiaries covered, geographical spread and human resources involved.
  • Under the UIP, all vaccines are given free of cost to the beneficiaries as per the National Immunization Schedule.
  • All beneficiaries’ namely pregnant women and children can get themselves vaccinated at the nearest Government/Private health facility or at an immunization post (Anganwadi centres/ other identified sites) near to their village/urban locality on fixed days.
  • The UIP covers all sections of the society across the country with the same high quality vaccines.  


  • The biggest achievement of the immunization program is the eradication of smallpox.
  • One more significant milestone is that India is free of Poliomyelitis caused by Wild Poliovirus (WPV) for more than 33 months.
  • Besides, vaccination has contributed significantly to the decline in the cases and deaths due to the Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs).
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